Thursday, February 28, 2013

Arizona Training Camp Day 4

Today re-enforced an important lesson: even if you are tired, you've got to get your job done and you've got to do it well. There are people who have gone out of their way for you, that are counting on you. No excuses. This isn't just a rule for athletes, but for everyone. You make a commitment to something, anything, and you've got to give your 100%...

I woke up today a little tired, stiff and with low motivation. I had a swim, a hard bike and a hard run up ahead. I needed to trick my brain into embracing the day and not being scared of it. So I focused on the fun parts of the job ahead: a new pool to swim in with an awesome view of Tucson, a Bike route with good roads and few stop lights, a beautiful bike to ride, a beautiful sunny day, a race pace run that was only 3km, 1 insole per shoe...this definitely worked! I had a great day of training today.

When I got to the pool I just stared at the view for a few minutes. It was only 32F (0C) so a little chilly, but I wanted to make sure I made a few memories of my trip that weren't of just swimming, biking and running. I hope I never forget that view...the pool, with Tucson in the background and the mountains in the distance. It was breathtaking (the picture below doesn't even do it justice). Before I froze to death I jumped in the 82F pool and started my recovery swim. 500 free - 500 forearm paddles - 500 pull - 5x100IM - 10x100 snorkel with a pull buoy & band around the ankles. This is a great core workout, specific for freestyle. With the band and pull buoy around your ankles you have to engage your core muscles to keep your middle from sinking. If you are a swimmer, try it on your recovery swim days! It's great. And you know what? I actually didn't feel THAT sluggish in the water, so I took that as a good sign.

The pool and the view

After a yummy breakfast and meticulous planning of my bike route, it was time for my brick workout. A 95km bike with 5x10' bike intervals and then a 3km race pace run right after the bike. I knew as soon as I got on the bike that I wasn't feeling as bad as I expected. My first interval confirmed this fact. My heart rate was low and my power was high. I actually had an incredibly enjoyable ride. I hit maybe 2 or 3 stop lights at the most and had fairly smooth roads the whole ride. I was a little tired by the final 10km, which was a steady uphill...but, because of all the climbing I have done, I barely notice when I'm on an incline anymore.

I arrived back at the house to find that Papa had arrived! Him and mamma were enjoying a nice antipasti lunch and some wine. I was still a little pumped from my ride so I wanted to get out on the run as quickly as possible. While in "transition" Papa told me about his flight and how he got to sit in the Admiral's Lounge while he waited for his flight from Dallas to Tucson. American Airlines had actually cancelled his original flight, but they managed to switch him to another flight so he would arrive at around the same time as originally planned. This re-arranging all happened at 4am EST! Anyway, within minutes I was off on my run...3km at 4'/km...the first km (a net downhill) went by in 3'53, then another km in 3'49, then I had to run uphill...ahhh...heart was racing as I tried to keep my pace as close to 4' as possible. Ouch the legs were burning! In the end it was a 4'13. So I did it, 3km in avg pace of 3'59/km. Not sure if I could have kept that up for another 18km though, but it's a start!

Post-run happiness to spend the rest of the day tanning, relaxing and spending time with Mamma and Papa!

Wednesday, February 27, 2013

Arizona Training Camp Day 3

Wow! Today was an exhausting day to say the least. I was up at 4:45am to get to the pool for swim practice. The air temperature was a steamy(?) 38 degrees Fahrenheit (~2C), but the pool was 82 degrees so you didn't even notice how cold the air was. The theme of the day today was speed work/all out swimming. The main set actually involved about 800yds of it! I had a run with all-out effort on Monday, a bike with all-out effort on Tuesday and so I guess this evens things out! After the swim I headed to Starbucks to pick up a latte for Mamma and an Americano for myself. I really don't know what it is about the coffee there...I just love it! Plus, if I buy 12 coffees I get one free...that justifies the cost, right? ;)

The pool after practice

Good morning mountains!

I spent the next couple hours eating and relaxing before my ride coming up in a few hours. Mamma and I had a pretty good laugh, when we were browsing the Walgreens website (see below). Never knew they made such a thing

From Walgreens: Happy Junk Fresh Balls - So Fresh. So Dry. The Solution for Men

So, after a few good laughs and a couple episodes of Parenthood, it was time for a 4hr/115km bike ride on the TT bike. The good thing about Tucson is that there are TONS of bike lanes, but, unfortunately, I do not know which of the roads with bike lanes are high traffic, have lots of stop lights, are under construction or are just filled with potholes. Let me tell you, I have a much better sense of this after today! I for sure know what roads to avoid in the future :) I did end up finding a bike path closed to's pretty flat, empty except for the occasional other cyclist or runner, so it's perfect for a zone 2 ride or for power based intervals outside. You can also just take it to get out of the city and onto a hilly route, instead of taking busy roads with lots of stop lights to get there. I am going to attempt this bike path route out of the city tomorrow so I will update on how that goes. All in all the ride was pretty good. I felt more comfortable in TT position today than yesterday. Also, a big difference I notice from riding last year is that I am using my glutes much more. Instead of my hamstrings getting sore near the end of a ride, it's my bum that's sore. I think this is a good thing. I finished my ride with more energy left, which is good because I'm going to need it for tomorrow's race pace interval ride. That's gonna hurt.

Ready for my ride

Next up for the day was a 13km base run. Lots of endurance today on the bike and the run and all in Zone 2. I'm still not sure whether I prefer the short, high-intensity or the long, base training. Probably medium intensity, medium duration...maybe that's why I'm a half-ironman athlete? Anyway, the run went well. It was hilly (almost 150m of elevation gain in 13km) and windy, but I found that the hills and the wind didn't really bother me that much today.

Planning bike routes for tomorrow, before my long ride. Very stylish, as usual

OK. I'm exhausted and heading to bed...I'm sorry if today's post is a bit scatterbrained, but that's how I'm feeling right now! Brain is mush.

Finally, DINNER made by Mamma!

Tuesday, February 26, 2013

Arizona Training Camp Day 2

I woke up this morning to beautiful blue skies at a more decent hour. No 5:30am swim practice to get to today! I did a round of swim tubing to practice strengthening the muscles for a high elbow freestyle catch and pull. My coach has helped me so much with my swim stroke in the past couple years and this one technical fix has made all the difference: having a high elbow catch by engaging the muscles of the shoulder allows you to grab more water with each stroke. I practice it in front of a mirror and with swim tubes. Underwater video has shown what a difference this makes. After swim tubing and a round of core work I hopped on the computrainer for some max power intervals. A set of 6x1' all out intervals with 3' rest might not seem so bad...but they really do hurt! Guaranteed to get you to recruit all those cycling muscles and get you to your max heart rate....oh, and keep a bucket handy because they also make you want to puke!

After a few hours of relaxing it was time for my 4 hour brick workout. I got my newly tuned up (thanks Enduro Sport!) Cervelo TT bike out for its maiden journey of 2013. The ride started out and, to be honest, I felt a little rusty...but it wasn't long before I was getting comfy in my aero position. After about 30kms I was at the base of Mount Lemmon. The upcoming climb up the mountain was a welcoming sight. I took off my tuque, long sleeved jersey and gloves and was ready to climb. Today wasn't meant to be a super hard day so I had to keep my power below zone 3, but I was able to still climb in aero position at a pretty decent speed. The smell of the mountain, the scenery and that "pleasantly difficult" feeling of climbing made for a great ride. When I reached my turnaround point (only 15km up the mountain) I stopped, re-dressed and then descended in about a quarter of the time it took me to climb! Unfortunately, at the base of the hill there was a thumb tack waiting to hitch a ride on my bike wheel. I heard the hissing sound of my tube losing air and quickly set about to change it. In fact, I think I changed that tube in record time (for me)! In less than 5' I was back in the saddle. Perhaps the 3 bike surgeries I had performed in the days leading up to the trip were good preparation for that moment. A few kms later I was getting a bit tired and my butt was starting to get sore. I only had 15km to go, but the wind had picked up so I would have to ride directly into it the whole way home! Plus, there were still a few short and steep climbs ahead. Oh well-that's why I'm here, right? Need to get the mental training in as well as the physical training. So I tried to keep a smile on my face as I tackled the remainder of the ride.

After the ride I had a 30' run to do. I put on my shoes (made sure there was only one insole per shoe) and was off. I actually felt great! Downhill, uphill, into the legs didn't even notice. I love runs like today's!

Pictures from Mount Lemmon:

Monday, February 25, 2013

Arizona Training Camp Day 1

Monday morning, Arizona Training Camp Day #1, began with an early morning swim with the University of Arizona Masters swim team. They swim at the Hillenbrand Pool, which is an outdoor, 18 lane, 25-yard pool (it is sometimes converted into a 10-lane 50m pool). You just can't compete with that! It is by far the most amazing pool I have ever swum in. Which says a lot, since I have been swimming competitively for 18 years. I didn't really know what was the fast lane so I hopped in with someone who seemed the same speed as me. It turns out that the lanes are divided based on your 1500yd best time. This roughly corresponds to lactate threshold pace (or Zone 4) and each swimmer knows their pace per 100yds (A PB of 19' for 1500yds would be 1'16/100yds). There are a couple lanes for 1'10 pace swimmers, 1'15 pace swimmers, 1'20 pace swimmers, etc. I REALLY liked this idea and the coach in me decided that if I ever run my own Masters team I will do something similar. Anyway, I ended up in the 1'20 pace lane and decided to just stay there, rather than try to find a 1'10 or 1'15 pace lane. The main set was about 1800m long, broken up into 200s, 100s and 50s on pace+10'/ 100yds. A nice aerobic set. I felt really good and was getting a lot of rest so it made me think I should have been on a faster pace, but decided it might have been good that I was able to save some energy. The workout finished off with a nice pull paddles set. I felt refreshed afterwards and excited for the next two workouts ahead.

The backyard

Mamma on the patio

After breakfast and some relaxing around the house it was time for a short, wake-up the legs type of bike ride on the road bike. I got my warm weather riding gear on (it was only 5 degrees at the time) and I headed out under the beautiful blue Tucson skies. I couldn't believe how wide the bike lanes are here! And the roads are pretty quiet. It wasn't an epic day of climbing or anything, I just stuck in Zone 2 and enjoyed the scenery. I did happen to meet a cyclist from the area and we rode together for about 30', which was nice. He told me about some good routes to ride and about a few TTs that go on in the area. A TT called shootout starts at University of Arizona on Tuesday and Saturday at 7am and includes a 20 mile climb. I have a very specific training plan to follow while I'm here, but I might try out the route used for the TT on one of my planned long rides. Time goes by much faster when you have company. However, since I am mostly alone in the triathlon racing that I do (non-draft legal), solo riding is an important part of my training. Speaking of good training, tomorrow I get to ride up Mount Lemmon!

About to go for my ride

View on my ride

With a swim and bike run done, can you guess what was next? Yup, a run! Although I was eager to run along the beautiful Tucson roads, my training today called for some speed work, which needed to be done on the treadmill. Today was one of my favourite(?) sets: 3x(6x(40"@max speed-20"off)-4' EZ@8mph). My legs were feeling a little sluggish and heavy and I was finding it hard to breathe (not sure I can blame altitude today, since I'm only at 1000m above sea level). On the third set I did use a trick to help me breathe that I tell the cyclists in my WattsUp class all the time: "breathe right into your belly". It really did work...I felt that I was able to breathe a little easier on the last set. Oh I also learned, it's not a good idea to put two pairs of insoles in the same gives you blisters. I somehow managed to make that painful mistake today...not quite sure how!

View from the treadmill

I was very happy to be done training for the day and settle down for a nice dinner (fajitas with veal steaks, avocado, sour cream, tomatoes, roast red peppers). Then Mamma and I watched the recent Grey's episode, I skyped with Rikki and now I am about to settle into bed.

Road Trip to Tuscon, Arizona

Friday morning started bright and early (well, actually it was dark and early) at 4:15am. Mamma made her triple latte, I brewed my Pacific Blend coffee and added an espresso shot, we loaded up our three bikes (Veloce, Tej and Trekky), our suitcases and my 36 homemade oatmeal-coconut-quinoa-chia seed-chocolate chip muffins and we were off! Less than 1' later I was pulled over on Queen St., checking my bag to make sure I had my passport (I did). So we got back on the road and, a few hours later, crossed the border at Sarnia (no line up!), where we had a would-have-been-cute-if-he-wasn't-so-uptight customs official. We then made our first US gas stop in Michigan. I had to laugh when I stepped into the grossest washroom ever and someone had written on the stall door "most ghetto washroom ever." I guess other people share the same sentiment. In Michigan we battled through a crazy snowstorm. At first it wasn't so bad, as the wind was making sure that the snow didn't accumulate much on the road....but before long I was driving on a snow covered highway while the falling snow turned the sky around me into a white fog. I was barely able to see 50 meters in front of me at some points. The trucks that were intent on driving side by side did not help matters, either. Mamma and I were very happy when the sky, and then the roads, cleared and the highway started turning south into Indiana and then Illionois. In Illinois we came across some of the weirdest billboard ads ("Vesectomy: simple, safe, and effective") and signs ("Kill a worker: $10,000 and 10+ years in jail", "My daddy works here" and "please don't kill me" in the construction zone, "watch your speed or die" .. or something like that) I wish I could remember more of theml! Another highlight of Illinois was passing through the town of Normal, Illinois. Hahaha. About 1300kms after the start of our journey we were passing through St. Louis. We were really ready for some wine at this point, which is probably why the remaining 250kms to Lebanon, Missouri seemed to take FOREVER! Eventually we made it. We checked into the hotel, unloaded the bikes and looked into where to go for dinner. We liked the sounds of "The Madison Street Grill", although, we were a bit hesitant after the receptionist told us it was a bit "fancy" ...because we were in jeans and lululemons (guess who was wearing what! lol). We decided to go any way and, well, the way Mamma described the experience was: "bad food, bad wine, good company" :) After dinner we decided to check out the local wine store with "the biggest selection in town" to see if we could find some good wine. We had a little chuckle about the sign outside the store warning us not to bring in any guns and then an even bigger chuckle when we saw the "selection" of Italian wines...which was maybe 2 or 3 bottles. Oh dear. So we headed back to the hotel empty handed and went to bed.


Mamma and I with our coffees at 5am

Normal, Illinois

Welcome to St. Louis!

Bush Stadium - for Timm Hughes :)

Only in the USA

Saturday morning we got to sleep in a little (5:30am) ... I had a pretty decent sleep actually so probably did get in about 8 hours. Mamma and I took turns getting in a short bike ride on the computrainer to loosen up the legs. Next, we headed to Starbucks for our pre-road trip coffees. Our first giggle of the day was definitely because of the barista at Starbucks who was for sure stoned and looked and talked exactly like Crosby from Parenthood (my current favourite TV show).

Our barista looked like this

We left Lebanon just before 8am and, unlike Friday, had clear skies and smooth roads for our drive. I took the first shift of driving, through the rest of Missouri and Oklahoma. I must say that I absolutely HATE when trucks take 10+ minutes to pass another truck. I am convinced that they do it on purpose to piss people off. There was not much excitement on the road today...It was kind of exciting getting a preview of what Peter Oyler (cyclist/friend/the co-owner of WattsUp Cycling),will be facing when he conquers RAAM (a bike race across america, in June. I am tired just driving the distance and he's going to bike it! That makes him the toughest cyclist I know. Mamma took over driving once we hit Shamrock, Texas and she drove through the rest of Texas and New Mexico, which is the "land of enchantment". We made it to our destination in Los Lunas by 8pm, checked in to the hotel and then headed out for dinner. We had Rikki check out the restaurants in the area online so as to not have a repeat scenario of the previous night. This worked well as we ended up at Teofilos, a nice mexican restaurant. The wine was better, the food was much better (my first time ever having a Taco salad!). We even found a good selection of Italian wine at the local Walgreens (go figure), where BOTH me and Mamma were asked for our ID. It was a long day and I think Mamma and I were both asleep as soon as our heads hit the pillow.


Early morning ride on the Computrainer


For Rikki: shot glasses for all the places we've been!

Welcome to New Mexico

New Mexico Scenery

Sunset in New Mexico

Sunday morning we woke up refreshed and excited for our last day of driving. I followed Coach's orders and headed out for a run before we packed up the car and got on the road. It was a little chilly, windy and there we even a few flurries, which felt a little strange since I was running in the desert. The run was beautiful though..I could see the snow covered mountains in the distance and I was able to watch the sun rise up over them. I definitely felt a bit sluggish though...I was at what felt like an easy effort, but my heart rate was much higher than normal for the pace I was at. I couldn't figure out why at the time and of course was worried I might be getting sick. Looking at the Garmin data later, I realized I had been running at an altitude of 1,500m/5,000ft! No wonder my heart rate was higher than normal. My heart needed to pump faster to get enough oxygen to my muscles. It all made sense :) After a quick Starbucks stop, Mamma and I were back on the road: on the I-40, heading South. This was the most scenic part of the drive. The surrounding desert and the mountains in the distance made for quite the backdrop. We were especially excited to pass through a few towns, with VERY funny names...."Truth or Consequences" and "Elephant Butte". Also, it was nice that the roads were pretty empty and I was able to drive on cruise control almost all the way to the next city (Las Cruces). Then we ran into a bit of construction and a "spot check" by border control, which caused us a bit of a delay :( With 250km to go, Mamma and I switched up driving. After a few sand storms we were finally in Arizona! We got to the rental house at Skyline Country Club just after 3pm. The house is beautiful and the scenery is spectacular. The house is right on Mount Lemmon so you can see the entire city of Tucson lit up at night. We unpacked, I did a short ride on the trainer (I did not have the energy to take my bike on the roads of Tucson, yet), then had dinner at the Clubhouse, watched a bit of the Oscars and went to bed.


The Car is PACKED!

New Mexico

Hmmm...tough choices

Finally in Arizona

Arizona Mountain

Arizona Rocks


Thursday, February 14, 2013

Females and carbohydrate intake before and during endurance competition

By: Miranda Tomenson, MSc

It is well known that carbohydrate loading is effective at improving performance by increasing muscle glycogen stores. It is also known that consuming carbohydrates during prolonged exercise (> 90 minutes) can increase performance time to exhaustion (meaning you can exercise for longer at a given intensity) by maintaining blood glucose levels. This is very relevant for endurance events like triathlon, cycling and running. While there is plenty of published information on the topic, most of it does not appear to be gender specific. In fact, there is some evidence that females respond differently than males to carbohydrate loading (6). Also, there is some research that shows that the effect of carbohydrate loading can be different in different phases of the menstrual cycle (glycogen storage is enhanced in the luteal phase compared to follicular phase)(2,7) . Thus, I decided to look further into this subject.

The most recent study on the subject that I could find was published in the Journal of Applied Physiology by Andrews, et al. (1). This study examined the effect of carbohydrate loading and supplementation in female runners. Trained female runners (aged 20 – 40 years old) performed three 24km treadmill runs. In the 4 days leading up to each run, the athletes followed the same workout routine and a prescribed diet. The diet was either mixed carbohydrate (50% of their total calories from carbohydrate) or high carbohydrate (72% of calories from carbohydrate). Both diets were a similar caloric value. During the run, the athletes were either given a solution containing 6% carbohydrates (0.47g carbohydrates/bodyweight in kg/hour) or a placebo with no carbohydrates.

The three trials were as follows:

#1 – No carbohydrate (CHO) loading & No CHO supplementation
#2 – No CHO loading & CHO supplementation
#3 – CHO loading & CHO supplementation


The results (Table I) showed that there was a trend towards an improved run time with supplementation alone and carbohydrate loading with supplementation, but the results were not considered statistically different. Additional results looked at the respiratory exchange rate (RER, which indicates percent of energy coming from carbohydrates), lactate concentration (another measure of carbohydrate metabolism), blood glucose levels, and blood glycerol levels (a product of fat metabolism). Results showed RER, lactate and blood glucose values were similar near the end of the run, both with supplementation alone (trial#2) and carbohydrate loading with supplementation (trial#3), which was significantly higher compared to none (trial#1). Glycerol was similar at the end of the run with both supplementation alone (trial#2) and carbohydrate loading with supplementation (trial#3), and significantly lower compared to none (trial#1). Taken together, this indicated that both supplementation alone and carbohydrate loading with supplementation resulted in #1) carbohydrates as the preferred source of fuel during prolonged exercise and #2) higher blood glucose levels at the end of exercise. Both of which may aid in the ability to maintain a given exercise intensity for endurance exercise. It is interesting that this study showed that carbohydrate loading with supplementation and supplementation alone gave very similar results. This would suggest that carbohydrate loading did not have much of an effect.

In order to explain why carbohydrate loading didn’t appear to have any significant effect, the authors of the study suggest that the amount of carbohydrates given during the 4 days (72% CHO, 5.5g CHO/kg/day) leading up to the run test may not have been sufficient. This is different from men who are able to improve their run performance by ingesting a diet of 75% CHO. The results in this study are corroborated by a study by Tarnopolsky et al. (6) that showed that women who consumed a similar amount of carbohydrate (6.4g CHO/kg/day) were not able to increase glycogen stores. However, a study by Brewer et al. (3) showed that when both men and women consumed a higher CHO diet of 7-7.5g CHO/kg/day for 3 days, they increased their run time to exhaustion significantly (pooled data from men and women). Additionally, Walker et al. (7) showed that when six trained women consumed an average of 8g CHO/kg/day they were able to increase their glycogen stores by 13% and improve performance in endurance cycling (cycling time to exhaustion at the same intensity was increased). Thus, it’s possible that if the subjects had consumed more than 7g/kg/day in this study, they might have been able to improve carbohydrate utilization and their run performance. In order to do this, it would likely mean they would have had to also increase their daily calorie consumption, which is not necessarily the case for men. Even though the performance time with CHO supplementation during exercise didn’t significantly improve performance, it is important to note that 75% of the subjects had a faster run time when supplementing carbohydrates than those ingesting water only. Also, supplementation was able to increase carbohydrate utilization and maintain higher blood glucose levels. Similar studies as this one have shown similar benefits from ingesting 26g CHO per hour in a 6 – 8% CHO solution (5).

SO…what does that mean? How much carbohydrate should female endurance athletes ingest prior to and during an endurance event?

Before: Based on this study, my recommendations for females are that they need to consume more than 6.5g CHO/kg/day for the 3-4 days leading up to any competition that lasts longer than 90 minutes. I would suggest that, because 8g CHO/kg/day has been found to increase muscle glycogen and performance in cyclists (7), this amount should also be used for carbohydrate loading by runners and triathletes. So, for example, if you weigh 60kg then you should consume about 480g of carbohydrates per day. Keep in mind that is the equivalent to about 1920 calories, which means taking in at least 2500 calories per day. For females, it is important that you are not afraid of taking in a few extra calories in the few days prior to the race. Your weight will increase a bit, but that is mostly due to water retention (1g of carbohydrates retains about 3g of water). You would have to take in an extra 3300 calories to gain a pound. This regimen would probably only result in an excess of 1500 – 2000 calories which will most likely be burned off during the race.

During: My recommendations are similar to what the study showed, but may vary in extreme temperature situations. I would recommend ingesting a 6 – 8% solution of carbohydrate during exercise. That’s equivalent to 1 scoop of eLoad (28g) per 500mL water (28g/500mL = 0.06 = 6%). In fact, 12% CHO solution is considered maximum, as any higher starts to impair gastric emptying and may cause discomfort (5). In terms of how much fluid is needed, this study recommended ~ 580mL/hr, but I would also use the rule that you need to replace about 50% of water lost with fluid ingested.

Happy carb loading!


1. Andrews JL,Sedlock DA,Flynn MG,Navalta JW ,Ji H. Carbohydrate loading and supplementation in endurance-trained women runners. J Appl Physiol 95: 584-590, 2003.

2. Bailey SP, Zacher CM, and Mittleman KD. Effect of menstrual cycle phase on carbohydrate supplementation during prolonged exercise to fatigue. J Appl Physiol 88: 690 – 697, 2000.

3. Brewer J, Williams C, and Patton A. The influence of high carbohydrate diets on endurance running performance. Eur J Appl Physiol 57: 698 – 706, 1988.

4. Hargreaves M. Metabolic responses to carbohydrate ingestion: effects on exercise performance. In: Perspectives in Exercise Science, edited by Lamb DR and Murray R. Carmel, IN: Cooper, 1999, p. 93 – 119.

5. Mitchell JB, Costill DL, Houmard JA, Fink WJ, Pascoe DD, and Pearson DR. Influence of CHO dosage on exercise performance and glycogen metabolism. J Appl Physiol 67: 1843 – 1849, 1989.

6. Tarnopolsky MA, Atkinson SA, Phillips SM, and MacDougall JD. Carbohydrate loading and metabolism during exercise in men and women. J Appl Physiol 78: 1360 – 1368, 1995.

7. Walker JL, Heigenhauser GF, Hultman E, and Spriet LL. Dietary carbohydrate, muscle glycogen content, and endurance performance in well-trained women. J Appl Physiol 88: 2151 – 2158, 2000.